Buildings.Occupants: a Modelica package for modelling occupant behaviour in buildings

Publication Type

Journal Article

Date Published



Energy-related occupant behaviour is crucial to design and operation of energy and control systems in buildings. Occupant behaviours are often oversimplified as static schedules or settings in building performance simulation ignoring their stochastic nature. The continuous and dynamic interaction between occupants and building systems motivates their simultaneous simulation in an efficient manner. In the past, simultaneous simulation has relied on co-simulation approaches or customized source code changes to building simulation programmes. This paper presents Buildings. Occupants, an open-source package implemented in Modelica, for the simulation of occupant behaviours of lighting, windows, blinds, heating and air conditioning systems in office and residential buildings. Examples were presented to illustrate how the models in the Occupants package are capable to simulate stochastic occupant behaviours. The major contribution of this work is to introduce the equation-based modelling approach to simulate occupant behaviours in buildings and to develop an open-source Occupants package in the Modelica language


Journal of Building Performance Simulation

Year of Publication



1 - 12



Short Title

Journal of Building Performance Simulation