Data Analysis and Stochastic Modeling of Lighting Energy Use in Large Office Buildings in China
Lighting consumes about 20% to 40% of the total electricity use in large office buildings in China. Commonly in building simulations, static time schedules for typical weekdays, weekends and holidays are assumed to represent the dynamics of lighting energy use in buildings. This approach does not address the stochastic nature of lighting energy use, which can be influenced by occupant behavior in buildings. This study analyzes the main characteristics of lighting energy use over various timescales, based on the statistical analysis of measured lighting energy use data from 15 large office buildings in Beijing and Hong Kong. It was found that in these large office buildings, the 24-hourly variation in lighting energy use was mainly driven by the schedules of the building occupants. Outdoor illuminance levels had little impact on lighting energy use due to the lack of automatic daylighting controls (an effective retrofit measure to reduce lighting energy use) and the relatively small perimeter area exposed to natural daylight. A stochastic lighting energy use model for large office buildings was further developed to represent diverse occupant activities, at six different time periods throughout a day, and also the annual distribution of lighting power across these periods. The model was verified using measured lighting energy use from the 15 buildings. The developed stochastic lighting model can generate more accurate lighting schedules for use in building energy simulations, improving the simulation accuracy of lighting energy use in real buildings.